26-27 OCTOBER 2023

Annual Baltic Military History Conference

Military Thought and its Transformation in the Newly Independent States of Europe in 1918-1940

As the weapons fell silent along the fronts of the Great War, the revision of the principles of warfare and the development of military technology started. Many theoretical approaches emerged, some of which are still influencing warfare in the 21st century. The aim of the conference is to study these developments. 

09:15 - 10:00

Registration and Coffee

10:00 - 10:15


Opening Remarks

Mr Hellar Lill, Estonian War Museum
COL Dietmar Hartung, Baltic Defence College
BG Vahur Karus, Estonian Military Academy
10:15 - 11:15

Keynote Speaker

Wiss. Oberrat Dr. Frank Reichherzer, The Center for Military History and Social Sciences of the German Armed Forces (ZMSBw)

"Thinking War. Military, Society and Warfare between the World Wars."

Introduction by Dr. Igor Kopõtin, Estonian Military Academy
11:15 - 12:00

Coffee Break

12:00 - 13:30

Forming the new armies and assessments for the possible conflicts

12.00 - 12.30 Dr. Arto Oll, The Estonian Maritime Museum
"The Development of Estonian Naval Strategic Thought and Assessments of the Capability of the Soviet Baltic Fleet, 1919-1939."

12.30 - 13.00 LTC Markus Wahlstein, (MA), Director of Army Research Centre, Finland
"In the shadow of the red army – threat assessment and the development of Finnish defense during 1920´s and 30´s."

13.00 - 13.30 Dr. Valdas Rakutis, Member of the Lithuanian Parliament
"Experience of Lithuania Independance Wars in concept of army building: cavalry and aviation."
14:00 - 14:50


in University Cafe
15:00 - 16:30

Press as a Platform for the Development of Military Thought

15.00 - 15.30 Dr Kārlis Dambītis, Leading researcher, National Defence Academy of Latvia
"Representation of theoretical and practical problems in the Latvian army in the 1920s-1930s: an example of military press publications."

15.30 -16.00 Maj (ret.) Ph.D. Gintautas Jakštys, lecturer, Klaipėda University
"The Rise of Military Thought in the Lithuanian Military Press in 1919-1940."

16.00-16.30 Michal Cáp, MA, Junior Researcher at the Military History Institute; Prague, Czech Republic

"The Challenges of our Defence" Military Thought and Officer’s Writings in interwar Czechoslovakia."
16:30 - 17:00

Coffee Break

17:00 - 18:00

Military thought and the future perception

17.00 - 17.30 Assoc. Prof. Dr. Vytautas Jokubauskas, Senior Research Fellow of the Institute of Baltic Region History and Archaeology, Klaipėda University
"Military ideas and defence plans 1930-1940 in the Lithuanian Army."

17.30 - 18.00 Maj. Peter Mitchell (MA), United States Military Academy (USMA) at West Point, Maj. Tanel Tatsi (MA), Estonian Defence Forces
"The Return of the Defensive: Guarding Estonia in the Interwar Period and the Future."

Closing Remarks
09:15 - 10:00

Gathering and Coffee

10:00 - 12:00

Persons and their influence on the military

10.00 - 10.30 Dr. hab. Tomasz Gajownik, Institute of History University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn
"Polish Military Thought in the Interwar Period and the Role of Marshal Pilduski."

10.30 - 11.00 Col. (ret.) Aarne Ermus (MA), Estonian Military Academy
"General Laidoner’s doctrine of active defence and its outputs in the Estonian Defence Modernization Plan 1938."

11.00 - 11.30 Prof. dr. Wim Klinkert, Netherlands Defence Academy, Breda
"A Dutch Liddell Hart. The military thinking of Captain Michael Calmeyer (1932-1939)."

11.30 - 12.00 Prof. dr. Jonas Vaičenonis, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania
"Lithuanian Army Officers' Assessments of the German Army's Delay Battles in the Late 1920s - Early 1930s."
11:00 - 11:30

Light lunch and coffee break

13:30 - 14:30

Experience from the Baltic Wars of Independence and their Influence at the Development of Military Thought

13.00 - 13.30 Dr. Egidijus Papečkys, lecturer at Vytautas Magnum University and at the Air Force Command and Staff Course at the Lithuanian Military Academy
"The Lithuanian army in 1935–1940: the development and the implementation of modern technologies."

13.30 - 14.00 Maj. Adam Buschard (MA), Royal Danish Defence College Copenhagen, Denmark
"Preparing for war in the Baltics; the Danish contribution to the Estonian war of independence 1918-1920."



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